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Telangana Employees And Job Opportunities: Dimensions of Discrimination
K.R. Amos (Former President of Telangana NGO's Union)


The formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1956 has brought in innumerable problems for those in service, who by virtue of being Telugus opted to stay in Andhra Pradesh, while those Kannadigas and Maharastraians opted to go to their respective States. The service conditions as obtained in Hyderabad State were protected under Section 115 of States Reorganisation Act of 1956 and Government of India was to settle the disputes arising out of integration of service cadres. There were distinct and specific service rules for Telangana and Andhra State. Taking advantage of political domination, administrative majority, the merger of services was manipulated to benefit the Andhra employees right from 1956. The first attack was on the salaries. The Andhra employees were working with lower pay scales, while the Telangana employees were better paid (about 20 to 30% higher pay scales). In 1958 and subsequently whenever there was upward revision in pay scales, the administration worked out th! e scales in such a way as to help the Andhras. In common institutions Secretariat, Heads of Departments, Judiciary, Engineering, PWD, Medical Doctors and many other Departments in the name of integrated seniority the rules were framed in such a manner as to give advantage to the Andhras, thereby, all the promotions were cornered by Andhras though the Telangana staff were equally qualified and otherwise suitable. Appeals to Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs could not yield positive results forcing the employees to go to High Court and Supreme Court. Even the judgements of the courts were not implemented forcing the Telangana employees to retire after attaining superannuation. Hyderabad State, with vast Urdu knowing employees was merged in Andhra Pradesh. After 1956, the official language did not include Urdu and hence the Urdu qualified employees were confined to ordinary duties and their very survival was threatened. Thousands of Urdu qualified empl! oyees were either retrenched with abolition of posts or they were not considered for promotion to higher posts. Language tests and new departmental tests were introduced to deny promotion to Telangana staff. In some departments, integrated senioritis were prepared in such a manner, in the name of higher qualifications of the Andhras that a new rule to effect promotion on the basis ATA (Andhra Telangana Andhra) in every three promotion vacancies. Summing up, it was found from 1956 to 1968, that the Telangana employees were forced be placed at a disadvantage in promotions and creation of new posts. By introducing new rules and conditions for all the posts created after 1956, Telangana employees were deprived of opportunities. Even after 30 years, those who got favourable judgements from Supreme Court in Engineering and Irrigation Departments have been waiting to get justice. Almost all those in service in 1956 with 5 to 10 years of fast service have retired. Another method adopted by Andhra rulers was to create large number of Boards and corpor! ations after 1956 and the recruitment rules were framed to deny opportunities to Telangana people. In filling up posts on deputation basis, again Andhras were preferred.

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Job Opportunities

Before 1956, all jobs in Hyderabad State were filled with Mulkies with 15 years residence or birth in Hyderabad State. After 1956, with the formation of State of Andhra Pradesh, thousands of jobs meant for Telangana youth were given to Andhras. The methods adopted differed from office to office, district to district. While no Telangana youth was appointed in Andhra districts, thousands of jobs in Telangana were filled by Andhras, some of them obtaining bogus mulki certificates. By 1969, it was estimated that over 22,000 posts were filled by Andhras with bogus certificates. In the name of rationalisation of Departments, large number of engineers, doctors, gazetted officers from Andhra region were dumped in Telangana districts. They in turn brought their own Andhra staff for lower posts, even for class IV posts. In the Secretariat and Heads of Departments out of 50,000 posts, the Andhra employees were transferred and posted so that the vacancy caused in Andhra district,! were available to unemployed from Andhra. Nearly 30 per cent of these posts were filled up by Andhras while the officials from Telangana Districts were not entertained.

Regional Committee

The service conditions, employment and transfer and sale of agricultural lands were to be regulated and overseen by the Telangana Regional Committee consisting of all the legislators of the region. The Governor was supposed to regulate the recommendation as watchdog for safeguarding the interests of the Telangana region under S.R. Act and authority of Parliament. But the recommendations of the Regional Committee were either not cared for or the subjects were never brought to attention nor serious note was taken. This is due to the fact that though legislators from Telangana were members of the TRC the political authorities and overlordship remained with the Andhra CMs and majority MLA/MPs from Andhra region. The Telangana employees could neither get protection under provisions or S.R. Act 1956, Telangana regional committee, State Government or the Government of India, Home Ministry. A spate of court judgements were never implemented in favour of Telangana employees. ! All the State Government committees and Departments held meetings for formality sake but not with an intention to do justice to Telangana.

The main loss to Telangana region was due to the fact that majority of the officers and lower staff in all decision making positions were Andhras and thereby, the schemes, projects, allocation and release of funds for Telangana region suffered and those Telangana officers who were scattered could not protect the interests of the region. If this was the position in 1969, it can well be imagined how far the interests of the region can be safeguarded now in 1997.

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Agitation in 1969

The Telangana N G O's spearheaded the Telangana movement along with students. The job reservations under Mulki rules were available not only in State Secretariat, Heads of Departments, Subordinate Offices, nine districts of Telangana but also in A P State Electricity Board, AP State Road Transport Corporation, and all other Boards and Corporations in Telangana region including educational institutions, universities and teacher posts.

All-Party Agreement of 1969

In order to ensure the proper implementation of the safeguards, the following decisions have been taken at meeting of the leaders of all the political parties of the Legislature convened for the purpose by the Chief Minister. All non-domicile persons who have been appointed either directly or by promotion or transfer to the posts reserved for domiciles of Telangana region will be immediately relieved from service. The posts so rendered vacant will be filled by qualified candidates possessing domicile qualifications and in cases where such candidates are not available, the posts shall be left unfilled till qualified domicile candidates become available. Action on the above lines will be taken immediately.

The Government however felt that the statutory bodies are State wide organisations, reservation of posts for Telangana candidates should also be made in them as in the case of the posts under the Government.

In, all cases where the Government of India has approved common graduation lists of Andhra & Telangana officers or issued any directive for preparation or revision of such lists, the lists so approved or prepared shall alone be followed for regulation of conditions of their services.

The Telangana surpluses will be determined on the following basis

  1. The existing method of allocation of expenditure and receipts to either region will continue.
  2. The Telangana surplus for each year will be computed by adding to the net revenue surplus of the Telangana region of that year.
  3. So far as statutory or other boards and corporations functioning State wide financed by the State Government, for the purpose of computing Telangana surpluses, they were to be treated as if they were State wide Government departments and as if their receipts and expenditure were booked in Government accounts. In the case of A P State Electricity Board, expenditure on power generation and high tension transmission lines only will be apportioned between the two regions in the manner indicated above. Expenditure on distribution lines and rural electrification will be booked to each region as per actual position.
  4. The Industrial Trust Fund which is being operated exclusively for the Telangana region will continue to be utilised. ( Later all industrial development was taken up by other agencies for benefiting the non- Telangana industrialists even in the matter of ancillary units in the region).

The Telangana surpluses so determined will be fully utilised for development of the Telangana region during the next five years (1973-78) (Signatories to the all party accord include leaders from Congress, CPI, CPM, SP, BJP, Majlis, Swatantra and Indian legislators.)

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Eight-point Programme of 1969

On 11-4-1969 the Prime Minister, late Indira Gandhi made a statement in Lok Sabha announcing Eight point programme for Telangana development, education, employment and plan implementation committee besides high-power development committee. One of the points which is relevant here is (VI) the possibility, of providing for appropriate Constitutional safeguards in the matter of public employment in favour of people belonging to the Telangana region will be examined by the Government of India in consultation with a committee of Jurists - as was the case with all other formulas, this also was not implemented.

For over one and a half years, the TNGO's organised educational meetings on the non- implementation of safeguards. But when all attempts failed, the NGO's had to declare that their problems can be solved only in separate Telangana state. During this period, a meeting of all political parties was held on 19-1-1969 and following decisions were taken.

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Prime Minister's Five-point Formula - 1972

The residential qualification in the Mulki Rules will apply only for.the purposes of recruitment to non - gazetted posts and post of Tahsildar and Civil Assistant Surgeons in the Telangana region. It will also apply to such posts as were non-gazetted on 1-1 1-1956 but have since been made gazetted. However, in the case of composite offices such as Secretariat, the offices of Heads of Departments and common institutions of the State Government these rules will apply for the purposes of filling the second vacancy in every unit or three direct recruitment vacancies in non-gazetted posts.

In order to provide adequate avenues of promotion to the Government servants working in each of the two regions, various service cadres will be regionalized upto the first or second gazetted level.

Educational facilities including those in technical and professional fields which are available at present to Telangana students in the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad will not be adversely affected. In these cities the facilities will be suitably expanded.

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The Six-point Formula - 1973

After P V Narasimha Rao was made the Chief Minister, the Andhra agitation was started against the judgement of Supreme Court on Mulki Rules favouring Telangana people. The progressive legislation on land reforms, sharing of power with the backward classes, dalits and minorities were some of the important causes for the Andhra leaders to launch agitation. At one stage, Andhra leaders Re Sri B V Subba Reddy, Kakani Venkatratnam and Tenneti Viswanadhain demanded for separate Andhra to solve the problems once for all. The Andhra agitation had brought to surface an air of dominance and superiority of Andhra leadership. The Telangana leaders were forced to agree for watering down all the demands on development, backwardness, employment, education, irrigation, agricultural development and power production. At last there was an agreement for almost unconditional integration.

With total surrender to the dictates of the then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi brought out six-point formula to benefit Andhras alone with an announcement in Lok Sabha on September 20, 1973.

The net result is as follows:

  1. Educational backwardness in Telangana area is not tackled - no new Universities. Medical, Engineering and higher educational centres were envisaged, no degree colleges, high school, primary any other training colleges, B.Ed. nursing, ITI's TTI'S or others were started.
  2. The jobs in the State Government for new recruitment were confined to non-gazetted in the Telangana regions with 4 years residence as local candidates. This made all non - Telangana people who immigrated to the region eligible for jobs. The jobs in the Secretariat and Heads of Department, police, common institutions judiciary were kept oven for all.
  3. All the jobs in APSRTC, State Electricity Board, corporations and boards were thrown open depriving opportunities of Telangana people.
  4. By excluding gazetted posts from the purview, large scale transfers were allowed.
  5. Singareni Collieries, major industries in Ramagundam, Medak, RangaReddy district, Khammam and Nalgonda were opened for all forcing lakhs of Telangana youth out of jobs.
  6. By giving 20percent reservation even in the zonal cadres for non- locals, Telangana people were deprived of jobs, while the 20 per cent of the non- local posts in the Andhra region were filled by the Andhras themselves.
  7. By adopting common entrance and reservation of seats for non-locals in Andhra universities no Telangana student benefited while Andhra students who are already residents of Hyderabad and are eligible took a majority of these seats again depriving the Telangana youth.
  8. The opening of Hyderabad University helped the Andbras. All other Universities set up as state wide institutions, and set up in Andhra region only help Andhra students to get admission and employment.
  9. Regional Development Boards were abolished by N T Rama Rao in 1983 itself. There by Telangana region has suffered in planning and implementing the developmental schemes.
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Job Opportunities in the State

After 1973, with six-point formula replacing Mulki Rules zonal recruitment and appointment was on the basis of four years stay in Telangana. It placed that the Telangana youth in disadvantageous position compared to Andhra youth. All the Andhra officials, working in Hyderabad city both in-State and central Governments private and public sector companies corporations and Boards, and educational institutions, have attained the right to get educational benefit in schools and colleges as well as in local jobs on par with Telangana youth. Thus, lakhs of Telangana youth have been deprived of educational and job opportunities in Hyderabad city and in industrial belt. The rural Telangana youth have to compete for the few jobs in the State Government offices while the Andhra rural youth have more opportunities. The job reservations and the availability of posts in both Hyderabad city and Andhra districts are more than in the Telangana districts. The following table gives the glari! ng disadvantaged position for Telangana youth.

Employment in State Government Sector as on 30-6-1983
RegionGazetted N G O's Class IV Contingency Total
Andhra Districts15,278 2,23,256 1,10,058 21,672 3,33,900
Telangana 7,717 1,09,427 27,146 13,801 1,68,327
Hyderabad City 5,149 44,703 22,448 1,168 74,038

It is inferred from the table that job opportunities for Telangana youth are glaringly low. In the name of six point formula large number of people from Andhra have grabbed the posts of Telangana in gazetted and non-gazetted levels in State Government services.

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Factory Jobs In Telangana

Most of the factory jobs are enjoyed by Andhras as the factory owners have come from other areas. Andhras have benefited by using the land, subsidy, bank loans, raw material, power and water from Telangana. The factories in Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Ranga Reddy, Medak and Karimnagar are glaring examples of depriving Telangana youth from their job opportunities. Transport companies and tours and travels, finance companies, film industries, and film studios get people from other regions. In chit fund business, crores are collected from Telangana but opportunities are mostly given to Andhras. All the real estate companies have been started by Andhras.

It was reported that in Ranga Reddy district out of 1.60 lakhs of factory and other workers are non-locals while the unemployed in Ranga Reddy district exchanges are over 1.8 lakhs.

Daily Wages Workers in various Factories - 1996 - Wages (Average)
RegionNumberPercentage
Coastal Andhra 3,16,321 67.7
Rayalaseema 69,1675 14.9
Telangana 81,095 17.4

The above table indicates the disadvantaged position of Telangana rural people.

The construction material like bricks and sand are brought from nearby districts of Ranga Reddy, Medak, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Warangal and Karimnagar. After taking land for 10 to 15 years lease, by digging 10 ft deep pits bricks in lakhs are made. Thousands of acres of land is becoming unsuitable for cultivation and becoming wasteland. The agricultural labourers who have been dependent on farming activities have lost their livelihood. Thousands of lorries of sand are brought from all over thereby creating environmental problems and drying up of groundwater sources besides water tanks and nallas getting dried up.

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Central Government Undertakings

It is a known fact that in all the central undertakings, factories, NTPC, Railways, P&T, Telecommunications, civil aviation etc., the job opportunities are not really available to Telangana youth as the Andhra youth with means and influence are able to get more jobs in Telangana Districts and in Hyderabad city. The job opportunities in Andhra areas like ports, industries in Vizag and Kakinada are mostly available for the Andhra youth.

With new policy of liberalisation and privatisation of industry and infrastructure too the Telangana youth will not be able to get their due share as they are not placed in an advantageous position.

In view of the fact that the Telangana region as such is deprived of its development and the people are made to suffer due to neglect by political systems it has to be examined as to how the region can develop and compete with the other region with all the attendant difficulties and still ensure progress. While the State Government gets large loans for Coastal Andhra development (Rs. 19,000 crores raised as loan) the interest and instalments have to be paid equally by people of Telangana region and is not possible to raise funds exclusively for completing ongoing or new projects in Telangana. It is estimated that Rs.20,000 crores are required to provide for irrigation of 35 lakh acres under the Pochampad project and 10,000 crores for power generation for lift irrigation schemes. If the requirement of investment for one project is so massive, how can the overall development be possible in the near future? The big brother who has joined us to develop equally with joint effo! rts only helped themselves depriving the younger brother of legitimate rights. The solution should be to allow the younger brother to stand on his own and progress.

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Conclusion

It is pertinent to conclude that the Telangana people and their development in any field is not possible as the Visalandhra experiments have failed from 1956 onwards.

The fact remains

  1. The Gentlemen's Agreement of 1956 between Andhra and Telangana leaders providing safeguards was not implemented.
  2. The safeguards provided under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 and the protections given under section 115(c) of S R Act were not safeguarded both by the A.P State Government and the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
  3. The High Court and Supreme Court judgements were mostly not implemented when they were in favour of Telangana services.
  4. The protections available through Telangana Regional committee ( TRC )with regard to scheduled matters are : Local self government, public health and sanitation, local hospitals dispensaries, primary and secondary education, regulation of admissions to the educational institutions, sale of agricultural lands, cottage and small scale industries, agriculture, co-operative societies, markets and fairs and development and economic planning and all Bills to be presented to the Legislature. By abolishing this institution, Telangana region suffered. Even if it were to be continued, it would not have come in the way of Andhra region in any manner.
  5. The All Party Agreement of 1969 reached by representatives of all political parties assuring measures far Telangana region could not be implemented nor any machinery created for the same.
  6. The Late Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi announced eight point program in Lok Sabha on 11 April 1969 and five Point Plan on November 27 1972.The fate of these measures received the same treatment as the other similar measures.
  7. The six-point formula was presented to.Parliament on 20 September 1973, further reducing the protections and safeguards the people of Telangana and mostly benefiting the Andhra interests.

All the agreements, accords, formulas, plans and assurances on the floor of legislature and Lok Sabha could not be honoured and Telangana was forced to remain neglected, exploited and backward. The experiment to remain as one State proved to be a futile exercise and therefore, separation is found to be the best solution.

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